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Descartes' ideas not only changed the course of Western philosophy but also led to or transformed the fields of metaphysics, epistemology, physics and mathematics, political theory and ethics, psychoanalysis, and literature and the arts. This book reprints Descartes' major works, Discourse on Method and Meditations, and presents essays by leading scholars that explore his contributions in each of those fields and place his ideas in the context of his time and our own. There are chapters by David Weissman on metaphysics and psychoanalysis, John Post on epistemology, Lou Massa on physics and mathematics, William T. Bluhm on politics and ethics, and Thomas Pavel on literature and art. These essays are accompanied by others by David Weissman and by Stephen Toulmin that introduce the idea of intellectual lineages, discuss the period in which Descartes wrote, and reexamine the premises of his philosophy in light of contemporary philosophical, political, and social thinking.
Meditations I and II are part and parcel to Ren� Descartes' larger work, "Meditations on First Philosophy." The First Meditation, subtitled "What can be called into doubt", opens with the Meditator reflecting on the number of falsehoods he has believed during his life and on the subsequent faultiness of the body of knowledge he has built up from these falsehoods. He has resolved to sweep away all he thinks he knows and to start again from the foundations, building up his knowledge once more on more certain grounds. He has seated himself alone, by the fire, free of all worries so that he can demolish his former opinions with care.The Meditator reasons that he need only find some reason to doubt his present opinions in order to prompt him to seek sturdier foundations for knowledge. Rather than doubt every one of his opinions individually, he reasons that he might cast them all into doubt if he can doubt the foundations and basic principles on which the opinions are founded.Everything that the Meditator has accepted as most true he has come to learn from or through his senses. He acknowledges that sometimes the senses can deceive, but only with respect to objects that are very small or far away, and that our sensory knowledge on the whole is quite sturdy. The Meditator acknowledges that insane people might be more deceived, but that he is clearly not one of them and needn't worry himself about that.However, the Meditator realizes that he is often convinced when he is dreaming that he is sensing real objects. He feels certain that he is awake and sitting by the fire, but reflects that often he has dreamed this very sort of thing and been wholly convinced by it. Though his present sensations may be dream images, he suggests that even dream images are drawn from waking experience, much like paintings in that respect. Even when a painter creates an imaginary creature, like a mermaid, the composite parts are drawn from real things--women and fish, in the case of a mermaid. And even when a painter creates something entirely new, at least the colors in the painting are drawn from real experience. Thus, the Meditator concludes, though he can doubt composite things, he cannot doubt the simple and universal parts from which they are constructed like shape, quantity, size, time, etc. While we can doubt studies based on composite things, like medicine, astronomy, or physics, he concludes that we cannot doubt studies based on simple things, like arithmetic and geometry.
Over fifty years ago, Msgr. Romano Guardini resolved to help his parishioners overcome the distractions and restlessness they suffered at Mass. Just before Mass each Sunday, he gave a brief talk on some aspect of the Mass, teaching them week by week, topic by topic, how to pre-pare themselves to participate more prayerfully. Afterward, he provided a few minutes of silence for reflection, and then began to offer Mass. So helpful were these 32 talks that they were soon published and have since been reprinted countless times in numerous countries and languages, helping generations of Catholics to deepen their devotion during Mass. Practical, straightforward, and full of wisdom, these talks will help you to quiet your soul, concentrate your mind, and grow receptive to God's grace during Mass. In these pages, you'll discover: The three principal hindrances to full participation in the Mass- to which all of us are prone The real meaning of "keeping holy" the Sabbath. Its special importance for the family One tendency we must overcome when listening to Scripture readings How to gain control over your wandering attention The one indispensable element of a deep liturgical life What to do when the Mass becomes boring and "routine" How to achieve a genuine - not superficial - stillness The importance of listening. Inner barriers that prevent it Why it's good to arrive early at Mass whenever possible The true significance of kneeling and standing in church And dozens of other practical ways to enrich your worship Although he was an eminent theologian, Msgr. Guardini wrote for ordinary Catholics who are struggling to become closer to Christ. Practical, straightforward, yet full of wisdom, Meditations Before Mass will help you to quiet your soul, concentrate your mind, and grow more receptive to grace.
A solid grasp of the main themes and arguments of the seventeenth-century philosopher René Descartes is essential for understanding modern thought, and a necessary entrée to the work of the Empiricists and Immanuel Kant. It is also crucial to the study of contemporary epistemology, metaphysics, and philosophy of mind. This new edition of Georges Dicker's commentary on Descartes's masterpiece, Meditations on First Philosophy, features a new chapter on the Fourth Meditation and improved treatments of the famous cogito ergo sum and the notorious problem of the Cartesian Circle, among numerous other improvements and updates. Clear and accessible, it serves as an introduction to Descartes's ideas for undergraduates and as a sophisticated companion to his Meditations for advanced readers. The volume provides a thorough discussion of several basic issues of epistemology and metaphysics elicited from the main themes and arguments of the Meditations. It also delves into the work's historical background and critical reception. Dicker offers his own assessments of the Cartesian Doubt, the cogito, the causal and ontological proofs of God's existence, Cartesian freedom and theodicy, Cartesian Dualism, and Descartes's views about the existence and nature of the material world. The commentary also incorporates a wealth of recent Descartes scholarship, and inculcates -- but does not presuppose -- knowledge of the methods of contemporary analytic philosophy.
In spiritual teacher Osho's Aspects of Meditation Book 2: Meditation, a Jumping Off Point, you'll discover a deeper understanding of meditation through an investigation into the subtle workings of the mind—concentration as a way to discover the self. The West has taken to meditation with great enthusiasm. We contemplate. We concentrate. We embrace mindfulness techniques and a multitude of mantras. We have undertaken to “do” meditation. The Aspects of Meditation series is comprised of brief, precious texts in which Osho shows us the core of meditation is not about sitting silently or chanting a mantra. It is, instead, a question of understanding the subtle workings of the mind. In Book 2, Osho explores the purpose of meditation: to discover the self.
Contents include a translator's introduction, selected bibliography, note on the text, glossary of technical terms, biographical index, and The Meditations of Marcus Aurelius -- books 1-12.
Lifestyle guru Karen Salmansohn presents a colorful gift book of two-minute meditations and mindfulness tips that help reduce stress and improve focus, clarity, productivity, and sleep. You're just a few minutes away from a more Zen mindset! Almost 40 percent of Americans admit they worry every day, and the media has pegged today's millennials as "The Anxious Generation." Although interest in meditation and mindfulness is ever growing, many of us don't have the time or patience to develop a serious practice. Health and happiness guru Karen Salmansohn's unique brand of fun mini-meditations use the power of focus and the five senses to achieve the same results as more standard meditation techniques in far less time. Packed with full-page illustrations, fascinating scientific studies, and Salmansohn's patented wit, Instant Calm helps you tap into stress-releasing topics like forest bathing (sound), essential oils (smell), earthing (touch), dot meditations (sight), and more--in just two minutes. Soon you'll be swapping your aarghs for ahhhs! Advance praise for Instant Calm "Instant Calm can help anyone redefine and expand their meditation practice. She shares a range of unique sensory meditations--which tap into all five senses--and offer a quick, fun approach to reset your mind and refocus your energy. I personally have begun to use these mini meditations whenever I just want to feel a mental boost throughout my day. I love the illustrations and Karen's fun and lighthearted voice! I highly recommend this book as a helpful guide to decompress from life's challenges."--Kristine Carlson, New York Times bestselling author of Don't Sweat the Small Stuff For Women "If you're feeling stressed and looking for ways to relax and feel focused (and pretty much everybody in today's world is!) well . . . then . . . this book is a game-changer for you. It makes doing meditation feel so easy and fun. It's great for beginners to meditation--and also helpful for advanced meditators--because there's something for everyone. What I especially love about this book is the wide range of sensory meditations Karen offers. Open up the book anywhere--and you will find a useful fun two-minute tool you can use to relax and feel grounded again. Plus the illustrations are gorgeous."--Christina Rasmussen, bestselling author of Second Firsts: Live, Laugh and Love Again
Descartes is widely regarded to be the father of modern philosophy and his Meditations is among the most important philosophical texts ever written. The Routledge Guidebook to Descartes’ Meditations introduces the major themes in Descartes’ great book and acts as a companion for reading this key work, examining: The context of Descartes’ work and the background to his writing Each separate part of the text in relation to its goals, meanings and impact The reception the book received when first seen by the world The relevance of Descartes’ work to modern philosophy, it’s legacy and influence With further reading included throughout, this text follows Descartes’ original work closely, making it essential reading for all students of philosophy, and all those wishing to get to grips with this classic work.