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On July 17, 1996, about 2031 eastern daylight time, Trans World Airlines, Inc. (TWA) flight 800, a Boeing 747, crashed in the Atlantic Ocean near East Moriches, New York. TWA flight 800 was a scheduled international passenger flight from John F. Kennedy International Airport (JFK), New York, New York, to Charles DeGaulle International Airport, Paris, France. All 230 people on board were killed, and the airplane was destroyed. The weather was good. The National Transportation Safety Board determines that the probable cause of the accident was an explosion of the center wing fuel tank, resulting from ignition of the flammable fuel/air mixture in the tank. Contributing factors to the accident were the design and certification concept that fuel tank explosions could be prevented solely by precluding all ignition sources and the design and certification of the Boeing 747. The safety issues in this report focus on fuel tank flammability.
NOT THEORY—FACT! A MISSLE SHOT DOWN FLIGHT 800! On July 17, 1996, minutes after take-off, TWA Flight 800 was blown out of the sky, killing all 230 people on board. What happened? It took federal investigators nearly a year and millions of tax dollars to point to a fuel tank explosion. But the investigation was riddled with questionable procedures. Was the government hiding a huge military embarrassment? Was the plane shot down by a missile? The Indisputable Evidence. . . Reddish residue from missile fuel on passenger seats Clean entry and exit hole in forward cabin 34 certified eyewitnesses to airborne projectile not allowed to testify FAA radar tapes or projectile in path with Flight 800 Government documents confirm Naval testing in area that night And more! Who launched the missile? How much did the government know and when? Was it simple bureaucratic incompetence or the most massive cover-up in U.S. history? Ex-cop turned acclaimed investigative reporter Jim Sanders exposed the shocking truth in 1997. Despite unremitting threats to his life, he has recovered even more evidence the FBI tried to suppress about the true history of TWA Flight 800. Include explosive photos!
The in-flight explosion of TWA Flight 800 on July 17, 1996, was one of the deadliest disasters in American history, spurring the most expensive airline investigation ever undertaken by the U.S. government. To this day the crash remains clouded in doubt and shadowed by suspicion of a government conspiracy. If there was any conspiracy to hide the truth about what really happened to Flight 800, it began long before the crash. Past crashes tell the story: What happened on Flight 800 has happened before and will again, unless drastic changes are made. Now veteran journalist Christine Negroni reveals what the commercial aviation industry has known for more than thirty-five years that during flight confined vapors in the fuel tanks can create a bomb like environment. It takes only a small energy source to ignite it. TWA Flight 800 was the fourteenth fuel tank explosion on a commercial airliner in thirty-five years. Yet each and every time, the airline industry persuaded regulators to deal with the symptoms of the problem and ignore the cause. When investigators could not immediately determine what happened, they were finally forced to look at the bigger picture. And, for the first time, this book exposes the hubris of aircraft manufacturers who knew all along, but dismissed as acceptable, the risk of fuel tank explosions. Deadly Departure shines a spotlight on the chaos behind the most massive crash investigation ever conducted, how the White House had to intervene between feuding investigators, and the surprising stories behind the missile theory conspiracies. It also tells the stories of the passengers and their families, the people of TWA and Boeing, the rescue and crisis workers, and the investigators and scientists involved illustrating the devastating effects on human lives. An impeccably researched, eye-opening examination of one of the great disasters of our time, Deadly Departure is a stunning exposé of how industry pressure continues to undermine regulatory policy, placing air travelers' lives at risk.
The first comprehensive history of conspiracies and conspiracy theories in the United States. * Over 300 A-Z entries on various events, ideas, and persons, as well as crucial supporting and refuting evidence, and competing explanations for the origins, history, and popularity of this mode of political thought * Primary documents from organizations promoting conspiracy theories * Contributions from over 100 international scholars with a full range of historical expertise * Separate section containing about 100 illustrative extracts covering the full range of American history, each with a brief headnote placing it in context
In this book, the editors, with 25 notable contributors, expand the knowledge of crisis management, focusing on case studies of high-profile events that have occurred in recent history. Part One of the text aims at theoretical development through empirical case studies and also postulates a crisis typology and charts specific theoretical and administrative challenges. The 'case bank,' which comprises the bulk of the book, is presented in four additional sections. The first deals with the development of crises and compares the infamous Watts riots with the 1992 L.A. riots. It also analyzes the fragmented and complex international environment that allowed the 'safe area' in Bosnia to be overrun by Bosnian Serbs in 1995. The final chapter chronicles the incredible human costs of mismanaged crisis in the Rwanda massacres in 1994. The second section explores the many decisional dilemmas that confront crisis managers. Cases include the fire at the Piper Alpha oil rig; the 1999 Turkish earthquakes; the Eindhoven, Holland plane crash; and crisis management of the Mad Cow epidemic disease in the U.K. The third section explores the long-term dimensions of crises and crisis management and particularly the development of national traumas such as the assassination of Sweden's Prime Minister Olaf Palme in 1986, the 1992 Amsterdam air crash, and the TWA flight 800 disaster in 1996. The final section shifts focus to future scenarios such as speculative information technology disasters, potentially devastating viral epidemics, deteriorating environmental and societal conditions in Russia, the southwest U.S. coming water shortage, and the outlook for Japan, one of the worldÂ’s most disaster-prone countries. Summarizing the research findings of the past decade, the authors describe patterns in the paths toward crises, the dilemmas and coping mechanisms that emerge during the thick of crisis, and, very importantly, the pathways that lead away from crisis.